VIDEO GAMES AND LEARNING


Today’s generation of learners are constantly bombarded by media imagery. Whether they are in the movie theater, watching T.V. at home, or playing video games, the fact remains that they are constantly exposed to an almost endless visual stream of information. This constant exposure to a steady stream of changing imagery and constant information is something that has been taken advantage of by many professions – sadly, education is not one of them. Beyond showing an occasional documentary or play, education practices in general have not used new media as a means to improve teaching.

 

One of the mediums of electronic representation which has great potential as a teaching tool is the video game. It has often been stated that video games help enhance literacy skills (Gee 2003 – 2006, Johnson 2005), help students develop language skills (Din 2000, Hansson 2005), and teach players about the content presented in the game (Grodal 2003, Johnson 2005). Furthermore, it has often been argued that video games can be used to actively transmit elevated ideas and persuade people to take certain stances (Bogost 2007) and that the narrative elements in a video game make them the highest form of interactive narrative to date (Stephen Meadows 2003), as well as instrument worthy of critical commentary (Murray 1997). Some have even suggested theoretical frameworks by which to analyze video games (Aarseth 1997, Juul 2005). With all of this in mind educators should consider using video games in their classroom. Even though video games are looked at by most of the population as childish means of entertainment, it is noticeable both by observation of the design of the games, as well as by the level of interest shown in a certain puzzle in a game by a player, that when engaging in play individuals are actively processing information, using critical thinking skills, putting into practice creative problem-solving strategies, and, depending on the game, making moral decisions and actively engaging with language. It is these qualities which can be exploited in the classroom.

Certainly, to argue that all games can be used in the classroom would be an irresponsible statement; but many games of specific genres – mainly RPGs, historic strategy, and Adventure games – can be incorporated into the classroom with varying degrees of success. When integrating role playing games into language classes teachers and students can benefit from the rich narrative and deep character development presented in these games. Role playing games are a type of video game which focus on story arcs instead of on full interactive freedom. In these games interaction is achieved through exploration, conversation, and decision making during certain turning points. However, most of the story has been already scripted by the designers and isolated into different events which unfold in a branching-tree narrative structure. These games often have over 60 hours of pre-recorded dialogue, which make basic listening comprehension a base requirement when playing, and large amounts of text dialogue, which make basic reading knowledge a pre-requisite for this kind of game. Despite the basic linguistic knowledge required for the enjoyment of this kind of game, they can be applied as teaching tools for any classroom with basic to intermediate skill level students. Likewise, history teachers can use historic strategy games in order to enhance the teaching of their classes. Games like Ages of Empire and Civilization are often virtual representations of actual history, often citing real documents and re-enacting recorded historical events. Some titles even allow the player to experience possible alternate histories that may have happened under certain circumstances. Student engagement with this technology is sure to make history class more active and interactive than when using traditional “banking” education approaches.

The educational value of games, however, does not end with the history or language class. Some video games allow the player to actively participate in the game’s creation process, offering the player some real-life experience to software development. Some games offer quizzes which have been designed by neurologists and psychologists in order to measure brain activity. These quizzes consist of short exercises of reasoning and logic, and often result in improved math proficiency in the part of students. Finally, all video games – whether they are urging the player on a quest to heal a post-nuclear world, to prepare for Ragnarok, or become a lawyer or a doctor, one thing that most video games have in common is that they actively force the player to learn something new in order to advance in the game. When this principle, known amongst teachers as the I + 1 approach, is applied to education students end up having a great learning experience. It seems, however, that game developers have mastered how to apply the I + 1 concept better than educators have, since if a game is not challenging enough or too challenging it will fail – both critically and commercially. Perhaps it is time for teachers to learn from games, use them as teaching tools, and exploit their educational potential. After all, if society evolves, it is the duty of educators to evolve with it and use updated teaching strategies in order to engage students in the learning process, not to keep using outdated methods which result in high drop-out rates and low educational standards.

REFERENCES

Abanes, R. (2006). What every parent needs to know about video games.          Eugene, OR: Harvest House.

Aldrich, C. (2005). Learning by doing. San Fransisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Assessment tools for the affective domain. (2007). Retrieved October 29, 2007, from Carleton College Web site: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/affective/assessment.html

Din, F. (February, 2002). Playing computer games versus better learning.

Gee, J.P. (2006). Good video games+good learning. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Gee, J.P. (2004). Situated language and learning. New York, NY: Literacies

Gee, J.P. (2003) What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy.         New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hansson, T. (2005, February). English as a second language on a virtual

platform: Tradition and innovation in a new medium. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18 (1), 69-79.

Johnson, S. (2005). Everything bad is good for you. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

Juul, J. (2005). half-real. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kohler, C. (n.d.). Power up: How Japanese video games gave the world an extra         life. New York, NY: Brady Games.

Min, L. (1994).An exploratory study on how pre-kindergarten children use

the interactive multimedia technology. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education. 7, (2), 71-92.

 

Prensky, M. (2006). Don’t bother me mom, I’m learning. St. Paul, MN: Paragon             House.

Reid, D. (2006, December). PS3 and XBOX360: The Last Great

Consoles? Game Informer, 1(162), 78.

Grodal, T. (2003). Stories for the eye, ear, and muscles: Video games,

media, and embodied experiences. In M. Wolf (Ed,), The video game theory reader (pp. 129-156). New York, NY: Routledge.

Juul, J. (2005). half-real. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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About Quijano

Johansen Quijano is a professor of English in The University of Texas at Arlington, where he is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in English. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in the Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), a Master’s Degree in Curriculum and Development focusing on TESOL, and a Master’s Degree in English Literature. He has published and presented on a variety of topics including video game studies, popular culture studies, education, teaching methodology, language acquisition, romantic poetry, and victorian literature. His research interests include the above-mentioned topics, narrative, interactivity, simulation, new media in general, and 18th century literature. He also enjoys creative writing (fiction, historical fiction, and poetry), and reading all kinds of epic literary works - from the Epic Poem of Gilgamesh to Robert Jordan’s Wheel of Time series.

Posted on July 23, 2010, in Education Commentary, Video Game Commentary and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink. 1 Comment.

  1. Gaming, is part of our lives you do it in every aspect of your life. One could say life is a game a serious one indeed but a game of chance and decisions, in one side of the split road one could be lawyer in the other side a simpleton all depends on the road one takes. So let me add that is it’s my believe that learning can be done in many of ways, for example I could learn how to write a great English essay from sitting down and reading essay writers of the likes of George Orwell or I could learn it by playing video games of the likes of “Everquest”, where can one learn more is the question? Well the answer is simple you can’t learn more from either, now you combine them and you have a great tool for education. For example play Zelda and finish the game, now write an essay about your experience while playing the game, was it frustrating? Was the story line good? What can be learned from the game that can be applied to life? But the fact is that you can most definitely write a great essay about the game while having fun at the same time. Is it time consuming most certainly yes, but learning is part of us from day one of our lives and such is that the game begins.

    By the way one can learn history from video gaming it wasn’t until I played “Too Human” that I did my research about Norse mythology.

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